PostgreSQLでの「\h」コマンドによる使用可能なSQLコマンド一覧の表示と使用方法の確認方法

psqlで使用可能なSQLコマンドを確認したい時がある。

そのような場合、psqlでデータベースに接続後、

\h

と入力し、[Enter]キーを押すことで、使用可能なSQLコマンド一覧を表示することができる。

使用可能なSQLコマンドの全ての使用方法を確認したい場合は、

\h *

と入力し、[Enter]キーを押すと、使用可能なSQLコマンドの全ての使用方法を確認できる。

使用可能なSQLコマンドのうち指定したSQLコマンドのみの使用方法を確認したい場合は、

\h SQLコマンド名

と入力し、[Enter]キーを押すと、指定したSQLコマンドの使用方法を確認できる。

《備考》PostgreSQL8.1のヘルプに記載されている情報
\h [NAME] help on syntax of SQL commands, * for all commands

《例》Linux(CentOS 5)+PostgreSQL 8.1で使用可能なSQLコマンド一覧の表示と使用方法の確認方法
[root@nobuneko ~]# psql -U postgres nobuneko_database
Welcome to psql 8.1.23, the PostgreSQL interactive terminal.

Type: \copyright for distribution terms
\h for help with SQL commands
\? for help with psql commands
\g or terminate with semicolon to execute query
\q to quit

nobuneko_database=# \h ※使用可能なSQLコマンドの全ての使用方法を確認する
Available help:
ABORT CREATE LANGUAGE DROP VIEW
ALTER AGGREGATE CREATE OPERATOR CLASS END
ALTER CONVERSION CREATE OPERATOR EXECUTE
ALTER DATABASE CREATE ROLE EXPLAIN
ALTER DOMAIN CREATE RULE FETCH
ALTER FUNCTION CREATE SCHEMA GRANT
ALTER GROUP CREATE SEQUENCE INSERT
ALTER INDEX CREATE TABLE LISTEN
ALTER LANGUAGE CREATE TABLE AS LOAD
ALTER OPERATOR CLASS CREATE TABLESPACE LOCK
ALTER OPERATOR CREATE TRIGGER MOVE
ALTER ROLE CREATE TYPE NOTIFY
ALTER SCHEMA CREATE USER PREPARE
ALTER SEQUENCE CREATE VIEW PREPARE TRANSACTION
ALTER TABLE DEALLOCATE REINDEX
ALTER TABLESPACE DECLARE RELEASE SAVEPOINT
ALTER TRIGGER DELETE RESET
ALTER TYPE DROP AGGREGATE REVOKE
ALTER USER DROP CAST ROLLBACK
ANALYZE DROP CONVERSION ROLLBACK PREPARED
BEGIN DROP DATABASE ROLLBACK TO SAVEPOINT
CHECKPOINT DROP DOMAIN SAVEPOINT
CLOSE DROP FUNCTION SELECT
CLUSTER DROP GROUP SELECT INTO
COMMENT DROP INDEX SET
COMMIT DROP LANGUAGE SET CONSTRAINTS
COMMIT PREPARED DROP OPERATOR CLASS SET ROLE
COPY DROP OPERATOR SET SESSION AUTHORIZATION
CREATE AGGREGATE DROP ROLE SET TRANSACTION
CREATE CAST DROP RULE SHOW
CREATE CONSTRAINT TRIGGER DROP SCHEMA START TRANSACTION
CREATE CONVERSION DROP SEQUENCE TRUNCATE
CREATE DATABASE DROP TABLE UNLISTEN
CREATE DOMAIN DROP TABLESPACE UPDATE
CREATE FUNCTION DROP TRIGGER VACUUM
CREATE GROUP DROP TYPE
CREATE INDEX DROP USER

nobuneko_database=# \h * ※使用可能なSQLコマンドの全ての使用方法を確認する
Command: ABORT
Description: abort the current transaction
Syntax:
ABORT [ WORK | TRANSACTION ]

Command: ALTER AGGREGATE
Description: change the definition of an aggregate function
Syntax:
ALTER AGGREGATE name ( type ) RENAME TO new_name
ALTER AGGREGATE name ( type ) OWNER TO new_owner
ALTER AGGREGATE name ( type ) SET SCHEMA new_schema

Command: ALTER CONVERSION
Description: change the definition of a conversion
Syntax:
ALTER CONVERSION name RENAME TO newname
ALTER CONVERSION name OWNER TO newowner

Command: ALTER DATABASE
Description: change a database
Syntax:
ALTER DATABASE name [ [ WITH ] option [ ... ] ]

where option can be:

CONNECTION LIMIT connlimit

ALTER DATABASE name SET parameter { TO | = } { value | DEFAULT }
ALTER DATABASE name RESET parameter

ALTER DATABASE name RENAME TO newname

ALTER DATABASE name OWNER TO new_owner

Command: ALTER DOMAIN
Description: change the definition of a domain
Syntax:
ALTER DOMAIN name
{ SET DEFAULT expression | DROP DEFAULT }
ALTER DOMAIN name
{ SET | DROP } NOT NULL
ALTER DOMAIN name
ADD domain_constraint
ALTER DOMAIN name
DROP CONSTRAINT constraint_name [ RESTRICT | CASCADE ]
ALTER DOMAIN name
OWNER TO new_owner
ALTER DOMAIN name
SET SCHEMA new_schema

Command: ALTER FUNCTION
Description: change the definition of a function
Syntax:
ALTER FUNCTION name ( [ [ argmode ] [ argname ] argtype [, ...] ] )
action [, ... ] [ RESTRICT ]
ALTER FUNCTION name ( [ [ argmode ] [ argname ] argtype [, ...] ] )
RENAME TO new_name
ALTER FUNCTION name ( [ [ argmode ] [ argname ] argtype [, ...] ] )
OWNER TO new_owner
ALTER FUNCTION name ( [ [ argmode ] [ argname ] argtype [, ...] ] )
SET SCHEMA new_schema

where action is one of:

CALLED ON NULL INPUT | RETURNS NULL ON NULL INPUT | STRICT
IMMUTABLE | STABLE | VOLATILE
[ EXTERNAL ] SECURITY INVOKER | [ EXTERNAL ] SECURITY DEFINER

Command: ALTER GROUP
Description: change role name or membership
Syntax:
ALTER GROUP groupname ADD USER username [, ... ]
ALTER GROUP groupname DROP USER username [, ... ]

ALTER GROUP groupname RENAME TO newname

Command: ALTER INDEX
Description: change the definition of an index
Syntax:
ALTER INDEX name RENAME TO new_name
ALTER INDEX name SET TABLESPACE tablespace_name

Command: ALTER LANGUAGE
Description: change the definition of a procedural language
Syntax:
ALTER LANGUAGE name RENAME TO newname

Command: ALTER OPERATOR CLASS
Description: change the definition of an operator class
Syntax:
ALTER OPERATOR CLASS name USING index_method RENAME TO newname
ALTER OPERATOR CLASS name USING index_method OWNER TO newowner

Command: ALTER OPERATOR
Description: change the definition of an operator
Syntax:
ALTER OPERATOR name ( { lefttype | NONE } , { righttype | NONE } ) OWNER TO newowner

Command: ALTER ROLE
Description: change a database role
Syntax:
ALTER ROLE name [ [ WITH ] option [ ... ] ]

where option can be:

SUPERUSER | NOSUPERUSER
| CREATEDB | NOCREATEDB
| CREATEROLE | NOCREATEROLE
| CREATEUSER | NOCREATEUSER
| INHERIT | NOINHERIT
| LOGIN | NOLOGIN
| CONNECTION LIMIT connlimit
| [ ENCRYPTED | UNENCRYPTED ] PASSWORD 'password'
| VALID UNTIL 'timestamp'

ALTER ROLE name RENAME TO newname

ALTER ROLE name SET parameter { TO | = } { value | DEFAULT }
ALTER ROLE name RESET parameter

Command: ALTER SCHEMA
Description: change the definition of a schema
Syntax:
ALTER SCHEMA name RENAME TO newname
ALTER SCHEMA name OWNER TO newowner

Command: ALTER SEQUENCE
Description: change the definition of a sequence generator
Syntax:
ALTER SEQUENCE name [ INCREMENT [ BY ] increment ]
[ MINVALUE minvalue | NO MINVALUE ] [ MAXVALUE maxvalue | NO MAXVALUE ]
[ RESTART [ WITH ] start ] [ CACHE cache ] [ [ NO ] CYCLE ]
ALTER SEQUENCE name SET SCHEMA new_schema

Command: ALTER TABLE
Description: change the definition of a table
Syntax:
ALTER TABLE [ ONLY ] name [ * ]
action [, ... ]
ALTER TABLE [ ONLY ] name [ * ]
RENAME [ COLUMN ] column TO new_column
ALTER TABLE name
RENAME TO new_name
ALTER TABLE name
SET SCHEMA new_schema

where action is one of:

ADD [ COLUMN ] column type [ column_constraint [ ... ] ]
DROP [ COLUMN ] column [ RESTRICT | CASCADE ]
ALTER [ COLUMN ] column TYPE type [ USING expression ]
ALTER [ COLUMN ] column SET DEFAULT expression
ALTER [ COLUMN ] column DROP DEFAULT
ALTER [ COLUMN ] column { SET | DROP } NOT NULL
ALTER [ COLUMN ] column SET STATISTICS integer
ALTER [ COLUMN ] column SET STORAGE { PLAIN | EXTERNAL | EXTENDED | MAIN }
ADD table_constraint
DROP CONSTRAINT constraint_name [ RESTRICT | CASCADE ]
DISABLE TRIGGER [ trigger_name | ALL | USER ]
ENABLE TRIGGER [ trigger_name | ALL | USER ]
CLUSTER ON index_name
SET WITHOUT CLUSTER
SET WITHOUT OIDS
OWNER TO new_owner
SET TABLESPACE new_tablespace

Command: ALTER TABLESPACE
Description: change the definition of a tablespace
Syntax:
ALTER TABLESPACE name RENAME TO newname
ALTER TABLESPACE name OWNER TO newowner

Command: ALTER TRIGGER
Description: change the definition of a trigger
Syntax:
ALTER TRIGGER name ON table RENAME TO newname

Command: ALTER TYPE
Description: change the definition of a type
Syntax:
ALTER TYPE name OWNER TO new_owner
ALTER TYPE name SET SCHEMA new_schema

Command: ALTER USER
Description: change a database role
Syntax:
ALTER USER name [ [ WITH ] option [ ... ] ]

where option can be:

SUPERUSER | NOSUPERUSER
| CREATEDB | NOCREATEDB
| CREATEROLE | NOCREATEROLE
| CREATEUSER | NOCREATEUSER
| INHERIT | NOINHERIT
| LOGIN | NOLOGIN
| CONNECTION LIMIT connlimit
| [ ENCRYPTED | UNENCRYPTED ] PASSWORD 'password'
| VALID UNTIL 'timestamp'

ALTER USER name RENAME TO newname

ALTER USER name SET parameter { TO | = } { value | DEFAULT }
ALTER USER name RESET parameter

Command: ANALYZE
Description: collect statistics about a database
Syntax:
ANALYZE [ VERBOSE ] [ table [ (column [, ...] ) ] ]

Command: BEGIN
Description: start a transaction block
Syntax:
BEGIN [ WORK | TRANSACTION ] [ transaction_mode [, ...] ]

where transaction_mode is one of:

ISOLATION LEVEL { SERIALIZABLE | REPEATABLE READ | READ COMMITTED | READ UNCOMMITTED }
READ WRITE | READ ONLY

Command: CHECKPOINT
Description: force a transaction log checkpoint
Syntax:
CHECKPOINT

Command: CLOSE
Description: close a cursor
Syntax:
CLOSE name

Command: CLUSTER
Description: cluster a table according to an index
Syntax:
CLUSTER indexname ON tablename
CLUSTER tablename
CLUSTER

Command: COMMENT
Description: define or change the comment of an object
Syntax:
COMMENT ON
{
TABLE object_name |
COLUMN table_name.column_name |
AGGREGATE agg_name (agg_type) |
CAST (sourcetype AS targettype) |
CONSTRAINT constraint_name ON table_name |
CONVERSION object_name |
DATABASE object_name |
DOMAIN object_name |
FUNCTION func_name ( [ [ argmode ] [ argname ] argtype [, ...] ] ) |
INDEX object_name |
LARGE OBJECT large_object_oid |
OPERATOR op (leftoperand_type, rightoperand_type) |
OPERATOR CLASS object_name USING index_method |
[ PROCEDURAL ] LANGUAGE object_name |
RULE rule_name ON table_name |
SCHEMA object_name |
SEQUENCE object_name |
TRIGGER trigger_name ON table_name |
TYPE object_name |
VIEW object_name
} IS 'text'

Command: COMMIT
Description: commit the current transaction
Syntax:
COMMIT [ WORK | TRANSACTION ]

Command: COMMIT PREPARED
Description: commit a transaction that was earlier prepared for two-phase commit
Syntax:
COMMIT PREPARED transaction_id

Command: COPY
Description: copy data between a file and a table
Syntax:
COPY tablename [ ( column [, ...] ) ]
FROM { 'filename' | STDIN }
[ [ WITH ]
[ BINARY ]
[ OIDS ]
[ DELIMITER [ AS ] 'delimiter' ]
[ NULL [ AS ] 'null string' ]
[ CSV [ HEADER ]
[ QUOTE [ AS ] 'quote' ]
[ ESCAPE [ AS ] 'escape' ]
[ FORCE NOT NULL column [, ...] ]

COPY tablename [ ( column [, ...] ) ]
TO { 'filename' | STDOUT }
[ [ WITH ]
[ BINARY ]
[ OIDS ]
[ DELIMITER [ AS ] 'delimiter' ]
[ NULL [ AS ] 'null string' ]
[ CSV [ HEADER ]
[ QUOTE [ AS ] 'quote' ]
[ ESCAPE [ AS ] 'escape' ]
[ FORCE QUOTE column [, ...] ]

Command: CREATE AGGREGATE
Description: define a new aggregate function
Syntax:
CREATE AGGREGATE name (
BASETYPE = input_data_type,
SFUNC = sfunc,
STYPE = state_data_type
[ , FINALFUNC = ffunc ]
[ , INITCOND = initial_condition ]
[ , SORTOP = sort_operator ]
)

Command: CREATE CAST
Description: define a new cast
Syntax:
CREATE CAST (sourcetype AS targettype)
WITH FUNCTION funcname (argtypes)
[ AS ASSIGNMENT | AS IMPLICIT ]

CREATE CAST (sourcetype AS targettype)
WITHOUT FUNCTION
[ AS ASSIGNMENT | AS IMPLICIT ]

Command: CREATE CONSTRAINT TRIGGER
Description: define a new constraint trigger
Syntax:
CREATE CONSTRAINT TRIGGER name
AFTER events ON
tablename constraint attributes
FOR EACH ROW EXECUTE PROCEDURE funcname ( args )

Command: CREATE CONVERSION
Description: define a new encoding conversion
Syntax:
CREATE [DEFAULT] CONVERSION name
FOR source_encoding TO dest_encoding FROM funcname

Command: CREATE DATABASE
Description: create a new database
Syntax:
CREATE DATABASE name
[ [ WITH ] [ OWNER [=] dbowner ]
[ TEMPLATE [=] template ]
[ ENCODING [=] encoding ]
[ TABLESPACE [=] tablespace ]
[ CONNECTION LIMIT [=] connlimit ] ]

Command: CREATE DOMAIN
Description: define a new domain
Syntax:
CREATE DOMAIN name [AS] data_type
[ DEFAULT expression ]
[ constraint [ ... ] ]

where constraint is:

[ CONSTRAINT constraint_name ]
{ NOT NULL | NULL | CHECK (expression) }

Command: CREATE FUNCTION
Description: define a new function
Syntax:
CREATE [ OR REPLACE ] FUNCTION
name ( [ [ argmode ] [ argname ] argtype [, ...] ] )
[ RETURNS rettype ]
{ LANGUAGE langname
| IMMUTABLE | STABLE | VOLATILE
| CALLED ON NULL INPUT | RETURNS NULL ON NULL INPUT | STRICT
| [ EXTERNAL ] SECURITY INVOKER | [ EXTERNAL ] SECURITY DEFINER
| AS 'definition'
| AS 'obj_file', 'link_symbol'
} ...
[ WITH ( attribute [, ...] ) ]

Command: CREATE GROUP
Description: define a new database role
Syntax:
CREATE GROUP name [ [ WITH ] option [ ... ] ]

where option can be:

SUPERUSER | NOSUPERUSER
| CREATEDB | NOCREATEDB
| CREATEROLE | NOCREATEROLE
| CREATEUSER | NOCREATEUSER
| INHERIT | NOINHERIT
| LOGIN | NOLOGIN
| [ ENCRYPTED | UNENCRYPTED ] PASSWORD 'password'
| VALID UNTIL 'timestamp'
| IN ROLE rolename [, ...]
| IN GROUP rolename [, ...]
| ROLE rolename [, ...]
| ADMIN rolename [, ...]
| USER rolename [, ...]
| SYSID uid

Command: CREATE INDEX
Description: define a new index
Syntax:
CREATE [ UNIQUE ] INDEX name ON table [ USING method ]
( { column | ( expression ) } [ opclass ] [, ...] )
[ TABLESPACE tablespace ]
[ WHERE predicate ]

Command: CREATE LANGUAGE
Description: define a new procedural language
Syntax:
CREATE [ PROCEDURAL ] LANGUAGE name
CREATE [ TRUSTED ] [ PROCEDURAL ] LANGUAGE name
HANDLER call_handler [ VALIDATOR valfunction ]

Command: CREATE OPERATOR CLASS
Description: define a new operator class
Syntax:
CREATE OPERATOR CLASS name [ DEFAULT ] FOR TYPE data_type USING index_method AS
{ OPERATOR strategy_number operator_name [ ( op_type, op_type ) ] [ RECHECK ]
| FUNCTION support_number funcname ( argument_type [, ...] )
| STORAGE storage_type
} [, ... ]

Command: CREATE OPERATOR
Description: define a new operator
Syntax:
CREATE OPERATOR name (
PROCEDURE = funcname
[, LEFTARG = lefttype ] [, RIGHTARG = righttype ]
[, COMMUTATOR = com_op ] [, NEGATOR = neg_op ]
[, RESTRICT = res_proc ] [, JOIN = join_proc ]
[, HASHES ] [, MERGES ]
[, SORT1 = left_sort_op ] [, SORT2 = right_sort_op ]
[, LTCMP = less_than_op ] [, GTCMP = greater_than_op ]
)

Command: CREATE ROLE
Description: define a new database role
Syntax:
CREATE ROLE name [ [ WITH ] option [ ... ] ]

where option can be:

SUPERUSER | NOSUPERUSER
| CREATEDB | NOCREATEDB
| CREATEROLE | NOCREATEROLE
| CREATEUSER | NOCREATEUSER
| INHERIT | NOINHERIT
| LOGIN | NOLOGIN
| CONNECTION LIMIT connlimit
| [ ENCRYPTED | UNENCRYPTED ] PASSWORD 'password'
| VALID UNTIL 'timestamp'
| IN ROLE rolename [, ...]
| IN GROUP rolename [, ...]
| ROLE rolename [, ...]
| ADMIN rolename [, ...]
| USER rolename [, ...]
| SYSID uid

Command: CREATE RULE
Description: define a new rewrite rule
Syntax:
CREATE [ OR REPLACE ] RULE name AS ON event
TO table [ WHERE condition ]
DO [ ALSO | INSTEAD ] { NOTHING | command | ( command ; command ... ) }

Command: CREATE SCHEMA
Description: define a new schema
Syntax:
CREATE SCHEMA schemaname [ AUTHORIZATION username ] [ schema_element [ ... ] ]
CREATE SCHEMA AUTHORIZATION username [ schema_element [ ... ] ]

Command: CREATE SEQUENCE
Description: define a new sequence generator
Syntax:
CREATE [ TEMPORARY | TEMP ] SEQUENCE name [ INCREMENT [ BY ] increment ]
[ MINVALUE minvalue | NO MINVALUE ] [ MAXVALUE maxvalue | NO MAXVALUE ]
[ START [ WITH ] start ] [ CACHE cache ] [ [ NO ] CYCLE ]

Command: CREATE TABLE
Description: define a new table
Syntax:
CREATE [ [ GLOBAL | LOCAL ] { TEMPORARY | TEMP } ] TABLE table_name ( [
{ column_name data_type [ DEFAULT default_expr ] [ column_constraint [ ... ] ]
| table_constraint
| LIKE parent_table [ { INCLUDING | EXCLUDING } DEFAULTS ] }
[, ... ]
] )
[ INHERITS ( parent_table [, ... ] ) ]
[ WITH OIDS | WITHOUT OIDS ]
[ ON COMMIT { PRESERVE ROWS | DELETE ROWS | DROP } ]
[ TABLESPACE tablespace ]

where column_constraint is:

[ CONSTRAINT constraint_name ]
{ NOT NULL |
NULL |
UNIQUE [ USING INDEX TABLESPACE tablespace ] |
PRIMARY KEY [ USING INDEX TABLESPACE tablespace ] |
CHECK (expression) |
REFERENCES reftable [ ( refcolumn ) ] [ MATCH FULL | MATCH PARTIAL | MATCH SIMPLE ]
[ ON DELETE action ] [ ON UPDATE action ] }
[ DEFERRABLE | NOT DEFERRABLE ] [ INITIALLY DEFERRED | INITIALLY IMMEDIATE ]

and table_constraint is:

[ CONSTRAINT constraint_name ]
{ UNIQUE ( column_name [, ... ] ) [ USING INDEX TABLESPACE tablespace ] |
PRIMARY KEY ( column_name [, ... ] ) [ USING INDEX TABLESPACE tablespace ] |
CHECK ( expression ) |
FOREIGN KEY ( column_name [, ... ] ) REFERENCES reftable [ ( refcolumn [, ... ] ) ]
[ MATCH FULL | MATCH PARTIAL | MATCH SIMPLE ] [ ON DELETE action ] [ ON UPDATE action ] }
[ DEFERRABLE | NOT DEFERRABLE ] [ INITIALLY DEFERRED | INITIALLY IMMEDIATE ]

Command: CREATE TABLE AS
Description: define a new table from the results of a query
Syntax:
CREATE [ [ GLOBAL | LOCAL ] { TEMPORARY | TEMP } ] TABLE table_name
[ (column_name [, ...] ) ] [ [ WITH | WITHOUT ] OIDS ]
AS query

Command: CREATE TABLESPACE
Description: define a new tablespace
Syntax:
CREATE TABLESPACE tablespacename [ OWNER username ] LOCATION 'directory'

Command: CREATE TRIGGER
Description: define a new trigger
Syntax:
CREATE TRIGGER name { BEFORE | AFTER } { event [ OR ... ] }
ON table [ FOR [ EACH ] { ROW | STATEMENT } ]
EXECUTE PROCEDURE funcname ( arguments )

Command: CREATE TYPE
Description: define a new data type
Syntax:
CREATE TYPE name AS
( attribute_name data_type [, ... ] )

CREATE TYPE name (
INPUT = input_function,
OUTPUT = output_function
[ , RECEIVE = receive_function ]
[ , SEND = send_function ]
[ , ANALYZE = analyze_function ]
[ , INTERNALLENGTH = { internallength | VARIABLE } ]
[ , PASSEDBYVALUE ]
[ , ALIGNMENT = alignment ]
[ , STORAGE = storage ]
[ , DEFAULT = default ]
[ , ELEMENT = element ]
[ , DELIMITER = delimiter ]
)

Command: CREATE USER
Description: define a new database role
Syntax:
CREATE USER name [ [ WITH ] option [ ... ] ]

where option can be:

SUPERUSER | NOSUPERUSER
| CREATEDB | NOCREATEDB
| CREATEROLE | NOCREATEROLE
| CREATEUSER | NOCREATEUSER
| INHERIT | NOINHERIT
| LOGIN | NOLOGIN
| CONNECTION LIMIT connlimit
| [ ENCRYPTED | UNENCRYPTED ] PASSWORD 'password'
| VALID UNTIL 'timestamp'
| IN ROLE rolename [, ...]
| IN GROUP rolename [, ...]
| ROLE rolename [, ...]
| ADMIN rolename [, ...]
| USER rolename [, ...]
| SYSID uid

Command: CREATE VIEW
Description: define a new view
Syntax:
CREATE [ OR REPLACE ] [ TEMP | TEMPORARY ] VIEW name [ ( column_name [, ...] ) ]
AS query

Command: DEALLOCATE
Description: deallocate a prepared statement
Syntax:
DEALLOCATE [ PREPARE ] plan_name

Command: DECLARE
Description: define a cursor
Syntax:
DECLARE name [ BINARY ] [ INSENSITIVE ] [ [ NO ] SCROLL ]
CURSOR [ { WITH | WITHOUT } HOLD ] FOR query
[ FOR { READ ONLY | UPDATE [ OF column [, ...] ] } ]

Command: DELETE
Description: delete rows of a table
Syntax:
DELETE FROM [ ONLY ] table
[ USING usinglist ]
[ WHERE condition ]

Command: DROP AGGREGATE
Description: remove an aggregate function
Syntax:
DROP AGGREGATE name ( type ) [ CASCADE | RESTRICT ]

Command: DROP CAST
Description: remove a cast
Syntax:
DROP CAST (sourcetype AS targettype) [ CASCADE | RESTRICT ]

Command: DROP CONVERSION
Description: remove a conversion
Syntax:
DROP CONVERSION name [ CASCADE | RESTRICT ]

Command: DROP DATABASE
Description: remove a database
Syntax:
DROP DATABASE name

Command: DROP DOMAIN
Description: remove a domain
Syntax:
DROP DOMAIN name [, ...] [ CASCADE | RESTRICT ]

Command: DROP FUNCTION
Description: remove a function
Syntax:
DROP FUNCTION name ( [ [ argmode ] [ argname ] argtype [, ...] ] )
[ CASCADE | RESTRICT ]

Command: DROP GROUP
Description: remove a database role
Syntax:
DROP GROUP name [, ...]

Command: DROP INDEX
Description: remove an index
Syntax:
DROP INDEX name [, ...] [ CASCADE | RESTRICT ]

Command: DROP LANGUAGE
Description: remove a procedural language
Syntax:
DROP [ PROCEDURAL ] LANGUAGE name [ CASCADE | RESTRICT ]

Command: DROP OPERATOR CLASS
Description: remove an operator class
Syntax:
DROP OPERATOR CLASS name USING index_method [ CASCADE | RESTRICT ]

Command: DROP OPERATOR
Description: remove an operator
Syntax:
DROP OPERATOR name ( { lefttype | NONE } , { righttype | NONE } ) [ CASCADE | RESTRICT ]

Command: DROP ROLE
Description: remove a database role
Syntax:
DROP ROLE name [, ...]

Command: DROP RULE
Description: remove a rewrite rule
Syntax:
DROP RULE name ON relation [ CASCADE | RESTRICT ]

Command: DROP SCHEMA
Description: remove a schema
Syntax:
DROP SCHEMA name [, ...] [ CASCADE | RESTRICT ]

Command: DROP SEQUENCE
Description: remove a sequence
Syntax:
DROP SEQUENCE name [, ...] [ CASCADE | RESTRICT ]

Command: DROP TABLE
Description: remove a table
Syntax:
DROP TABLE name [, ...] [ CASCADE | RESTRICT ]

Command: DROP TABLESPACE
Description: remove a tablespace
Syntax:
DROP TABLESPACE tablespacename

Command: DROP TRIGGER
Description: remove a trigger
Syntax:
DROP TRIGGER name ON table [ CASCADE | RESTRICT ]

Command: DROP TYPE
Description: remove a data type
Syntax:
DROP TYPE name [, ...] [ CASCADE | RESTRICT ]

Command: DROP USER
Description: remove a database role
Syntax:
DROP USER name [, ...]

Command: DROP VIEW
Description: remove a view
Syntax:
DROP VIEW name [, ...] [ CASCADE | RESTRICT ]

Command: END
Description: commit the current transaction
Syntax:
END [ WORK | TRANSACTION ]

Command: EXECUTE
Description: execute a prepared statement
Syntax:
EXECUTE plan_name [ (parameter [, ...] ) ]

Command: EXPLAIN
Description: show the execution plan of a statement
Syntax:
EXPLAIN [ ANALYZE ] [ VERBOSE ] statement

Command: FETCH
Description: retrieve rows from a query using a cursor
Syntax:
FETCH [ direction { FROM | IN } ] cursorname

where direction can be empty or one of:

NEXT
PRIOR
FIRST
LAST
ABSOLUTE count
RELATIVE count
count
ALL
FORWARD
FORWARD count
FORWARD ALL
BACKWARD
BACKWARD count
BACKWARD ALL

Command: GRANT
Description: define access privileges
Syntax:
GRANT { { SELECT | INSERT | UPDATE | DELETE | RULE | REFERENCES | TRIGGER }
[,...] | ALL [ PRIVILEGES ] }
ON [ TABLE ] tablename [, ...]
TO { username | GROUP groupname | PUBLIC } [, ...] [ WITH GRANT OPTION ]

GRANT { { CREATE | TEMPORARY | TEMP } [,...] | ALL [ PRIVILEGES ] }
ON DATABASE dbname [, ...]
TO { username | GROUP groupname | PUBLIC } [, ...] [ WITH GRANT OPTION ]

GRANT { EXECUTE | ALL [ PRIVILEGES ] }
ON FUNCTION funcname ( [ [ argmode ] [ argname ] argtype [, ...] ] ) [, ...]
TO { username | GROUP groupname | PUBLIC } [, ...] [ WITH GRANT OPTION ]

GRANT { USAGE | ALL [ PRIVILEGES ] }
ON LANGUAGE langname [, ...]
TO { username | GROUP groupname | PUBLIC } [, ...] [ WITH GRANT OPTION ]

GRANT { { CREATE | USAGE } [,...] | ALL [ PRIVILEGES ] }
ON SCHEMA schemaname [, ...]
TO { username | GROUP groupname | PUBLIC } [, ...] [ WITH GRANT OPTION ]

GRANT { CREATE | ALL [ PRIVILEGES ] }
ON TABLESPACE tablespacename [, ...]
TO { username | GROUP groupname | PUBLIC } [, ...] [ WITH GRANT OPTION ]

GRANT role [, ...] TO username [, ...] [ WITH ADMIN OPTION ]

Command: INSERT
Description: create new rows in a table
Syntax:
INSERT INTO table [ ( column [, ...] ) ]
{ DEFAULT VALUES | VALUES ( { expression | DEFAULT } [, ...] ) | query }

Command: LISTEN
Description: listen for a notification
Syntax:
LISTEN name

Command: LOAD
Description: load or reload a shared library file
Syntax:
LOAD 'filename'

Command: LOCK
Description: lock a table
Syntax:
LOCK [ TABLE ] name [, ...] [ IN lockmode MODE ] [ NOWAIT ]

where lockmode is one of:

ACCESS SHARE | ROW SHARE | ROW EXCLUSIVE | SHARE UPDATE EXCLUSIVE
| SHARE | SHARE ROW EXCLUSIVE | EXCLUSIVE | ACCESS EXCLUSIVE

Command: MOVE
Description: position a cursor
Syntax:
MOVE [ direction { FROM | IN } ] cursorname

Command: NOTIFY
Description: generate a notification
Syntax:
NOTIFY name

Command: PREPARE
Description: prepare a statement for execution
Syntax:
PREPARE plan_name [ (datatype [, ...] ) ] AS statement

Command: PREPARE TRANSACTION
Description: prepare the current transaction for two-phase commit
Syntax:
PREPARE TRANSACTION transaction_id

Command: REINDEX
Description: rebuild indexes
Syntax:
REINDEX { INDEX | TABLE | DATABASE | SYSTEM } name [ FORCE ]

Command: RELEASE SAVEPOINT
Description: destroy a previously defined savepoint
Syntax:
RELEASE [ SAVEPOINT ] savepoint_name

Command: RESET
Description: restore the value of a run-time parameter to the default value
Syntax:
RESET name
RESET ALL

Command: REVOKE
Description: remove access privileges
Syntax:
REVOKE [ GRANT OPTION FOR ]
{ { SELECT | INSERT | UPDATE | DELETE | RULE | REFERENCES | TRIGGER }
[,...] | ALL [ PRIVILEGES ] }
ON [ TABLE ] tablename [, ...]
FROM { username | GROUP groupname | PUBLIC } [, ...]
[ CASCADE | RESTRICT ]

REVOKE [ GRANT OPTION FOR ]
{ { CREATE | TEMPORARY | TEMP } [,...] | ALL [ PRIVILEGES ] }
ON DATABASE dbname [, ...]
FROM { username | GROUP groupname | PUBLIC } [, ...]
[ CASCADE | RESTRICT ]

REVOKE [ GRANT OPTION FOR ]
{ EXECUTE | ALL [ PRIVILEGES ] }
ON FUNCTION funcname ( [ [ argmode ] [ argname ] argtype [, ...] ] ) [, ...]
FROM { username | GROUP groupname | PUBLIC } [, ...]
[ CASCADE | RESTRICT ]

REVOKE [ GRANT OPTION FOR ]
{ USAGE | ALL [ PRIVILEGES ] }
ON LANGUAGE langname [, ...]
FROM { username | GROUP groupname | PUBLIC } [, ...]
[ CASCADE | RESTRICT ]

REVOKE [ GRANT OPTION FOR ]
{ { CREATE | USAGE } [,...] | ALL [ PRIVILEGES ] }
ON SCHEMA schemaname [, ...]
FROM { username | GROUP groupname | PUBLIC } [, ...]
[ CASCADE | RESTRICT ]

REVOKE [ GRANT OPTION FOR ]
{ CREATE | ALL [ PRIVILEGES ] }
ON TABLESPACE tablespacename [, ...]
FROM { username | GROUP groupname | PUBLIC } [, ...]
[ CASCADE | RESTRICT ]

REVOKE [ ADMIN OPTION FOR ]
role [, ...] FROM username [, ...]
[ CASCADE | RESTRICT ]

Command: ROLLBACK
Description: abort the current transaction
Syntax:
ROLLBACK [ WORK | TRANSACTION ]

Command: ROLLBACK PREPARED
Description: cancel a transaction that was earlier prepared for two-phase commit
Syntax:
ROLLBACK PREPARED transaction_id

Command: ROLLBACK TO SAVEPOINT
Description: roll back to a savepoint
Syntax:
ROLLBACK [ WORK | TRANSACTION ] TO [ SAVEPOINT ] savepoint_name

Command: SAVEPOINT
Description: define a new savepoint within the current transaction
Syntax:
SAVEPOINT savepoint_name

Command: SELECT
Description: retrieve rows from a table or view
Syntax:
SELECT [ ALL | DISTINCT [ ON ( expression [, ...] ) ] ]
* | expression [ AS output_name ] [, ...]
[ FROM from_item [, ...] ]
[ WHERE condition ]
[ GROUP BY expression [, ...] ]
[ HAVING condition [, ...] ]
[ { UNION | INTERSECT | EXCEPT } [ ALL ] select ]
[ ORDER BY expression [ ASC | DESC | USING operator ] [, ...] ]
[ LIMIT { count | ALL } ]
[ OFFSET start ]
[ FOR { UPDATE | SHARE } [ OF table_name [, ...] ] [ NOWAIT ] ]

where from_item can be one of:

[ ONLY ] table_name [ * ] [ [ AS ] alias [ ( column_alias [, ...] ) ] ]
( select ) [ AS ] alias [ ( column_alias [, ...] ) ]
function_name ( [ argument [, ...] ] ) [ AS ] alias [ ( column_alias [, ...] | column_definition [, ...] ) ]
function_name ( [ argument [, ...] ] ) AS ( column_definition [, ...] )
from_item [ NATURAL ] join_type from_item [ ON join_condition | USING ( join_column [, ...] ) ]

Command: SELECT INTO
Description: define a new table from the results of a query
Syntax:
SELECT [ ALL | DISTINCT [ ON ( expression [, ...] ) ] ]
* | expression [ AS output_name ] [, ...]
INTO [ TEMPORARY | TEMP ] [ TABLE ] new_table
[ FROM from_item [, ...] ]
[ WHERE condition ]
[ GROUP BY expression [, ...] ]
[ HAVING condition [, ...] ]
[ { UNION | INTERSECT | EXCEPT } [ ALL ] select ]
[ ORDER BY expression [ ASC | DESC | USING operator ] [, ...] ]
[ LIMIT { count | ALL } ]
[ OFFSET start ]
[ FOR { UPDATE | SHARE } [ OF table_name [, ...] ] [ NOWAIT ] ]

Command: SET
Description: change a run-time parameter
Syntax:
SET [ SESSION | LOCAL ] name { TO | = } { value | 'value' | DEFAULT }
SET [ SESSION | LOCAL ] TIME ZONE { timezone | LOCAL | DEFAULT }

Command: SET CONSTRAINTS
Description: set constraint checking modes for the current transaction
Syntax:
SET CONSTRAINTS { ALL | name [, ...] } { DEFERRED | IMMEDIATE }

Command: SET ROLE
Description: set the current user identifier of the current session
Syntax:
SET [ SESSION | LOCAL ] ROLE rolename
SET [ SESSION | LOCAL ] ROLE NONE
RESET ROLE

Command: SET SESSION AUTHORIZATION
Description: set the session user identifier and the current user identifier of the current session
Syntax:
SET [ SESSION | LOCAL ] SESSION AUTHORIZATION username
SET [ SESSION | LOCAL ] SESSION AUTHORIZATION DEFAULT
RESET SESSION AUTHORIZATION

Command: SET TRANSACTION
Description: set the characteristics of the current transaction
Syntax:
SET TRANSACTION transaction_mode [, ...]
SET SESSION CHARACTERISTICS AS TRANSACTION transaction_mode [, ...]

where transaction_mode is one of:

ISOLATION LEVEL { SERIALIZABLE | REPEATABLE READ | READ COMMITTED | READ UNCOMMITTED }
READ WRITE | READ ONLY

Command: SHOW
Description: show the value of a run-time parameter
Syntax:
SHOW name
SHOW ALL

Command: START TRANSACTION
Description: start a transaction block
Syntax:
START TRANSACTION [ transaction_mode [, ...] ]

where transaction_mode is one of:

ISOLATION LEVEL { SERIALIZABLE | REPEATABLE READ | READ COMMITTED | READ UNCOMMITTED }
READ WRITE | READ ONLY

Command: TRUNCATE
Description: empty a table or set of tables
Syntax:
TRUNCATE [ TABLE ] name [, ...]

Command: UNLISTEN
Description: stop listening for a notification
Syntax:
UNLISTEN { name | * }

Command: UPDATE
Description: update rows of a table
Syntax:
UPDATE [ ONLY ] table SET column = { expression | DEFAULT } [, ...]
[ FROM fromlist ]
[ WHERE condition ]

Command: VACUUM
Description: garbage-collect and optionally analyze a database
Syntax:
VACUUM [ FULL | FREEZE ] [ VERBOSE ] [ table ]
VACUUM [ FULL | FREEZE ] [ VERBOSE ] ANALYZE [ table [ (column [, ...] ) ] ]

nobuneko_database=#
nobuneko_database=# \h ABORT ※指定したSQLコマンドのみの使用方法を確認したい場合
Command: ABORT
Description: abort the current transaction
Syntax:
ABORT [ WORK | TRANSACTION ]

  
 

前へ

PostgreSQLでの「\encoding」コマンドによる現在の文字エンコーディングの確認と変更方法

次へ

Windows Server 2003でのタスク画面の開き方とタスク実行履歴確認方法